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Armenian on web Index du Forum -> Courant / Contre-courant (points de vue - Տեսակետ - Görüş açısı) -> Histoire arménienne-Հայոց Պատմություն-Ermeni tarihi
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MessagePosté le: Jeu 14 Juil 2016 - 09:13
MessageSujet du message: Büyük Hay Tarihi Kronolojisi
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ARMENIAN HISTORY TIMELINE: Key Dates

1. Formative Era and the Kingdom of Ararat

5000 BC Armenian language becomes a separate Indo-European language
2700 BC First mention of Haya in Akkadian inscriptions
2260 BC First mention of Armenia in Sumerian inscriptions
1300 BC Founding of Kingdom of Ararat (Urartu)
782 BC Founding of Erebuni/Erevan
585 BC Yervandian Dynasty (570-200) established when Kingdom of Ararat falls to Persians (Medes)
520 BC Armenia translated as Urartu in Behistun Inscription commemorating Darius' Persian Empire
336 BC Alexander the Great, Armenia incorporated into Seleucid Kingdom

2. Artashesian Kingdom

189 BC Artashes I – Consolidated Armenian State, founds Armenian dynasty that
reaches its height under Tigran the Great and rules until 31 AD
95 BC Tigran the Great consolidates Armenian state with neighbors against Rome
0 Birth of our Lord, Jesus Christ
33 The Crucifixion and Resurrection of our Lord, Jesus Christ
35-60 The Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew bring Christianity to Armenia
3. Arshakuni Kingdom
66 Trdat I crowned King – founding Arshakuni dynasty that ruled Armenia through
428 during Armenia's conversion to Christianity
4. Adoption of Christianity, Golden Age
301 St. Grigor (Gregory the Illuminator) converts King Trdat III to Christianity and
Armenia becomes the first Christian nation
303 Etchmiadzin (meaning the only-begotten descended) is established after St.
Gregory has a vision
325 The First Ecumenical Council is held in Nicea; the Nicene Creed is formulated,
St. Aristakes (St. Gregory's son, later catholicos, attends from Armenia)
353 St. Nerses the Great (-373), St. Gregory's great grandson, establishes schools,
hospitals, orphanages, monasteries
354 St. Augustine
381 The Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople
387 Partition of Armenia between Byzantium/Rome and Persia
404-6 The Armenian alphabet is created thanks to Catholicos Sahag and vardapet
Mesrob, who led a group of Holy Translators in rendering the Bible and
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Armenian Church services into Armenian, ushering in the Golden Age of
Armenian Culture
431 The Third Ecumenical Council is held in Ephesus (the basic dogmas and
teachings of the Armenian Church are based on the declarations of the three
ecumenical councils (1st Nicea 325, 2nd Constantinople 381)
451 The Battle of Avarayr is fought against the Persians in defense of Christianity; led
by St. Vartan, who is martyred. Armenia proves its commitment to the Christian
faith. The Fourth Ecumenical Council is held at Chalcedon, which the Armenian
Church does not attend
476 Fall of Rome
484 The Treaty of Nvarsak is signed with the Persians, restoring Armenian local
autonomy and guaranteeing Armenia's religious freedom
607 The Armenian Church formally objects to the Council of Chalcedon's formulation
about Christ's human and divine nature
614 The Persians destroy many of the over 70 Armenian churches and monasteries in
Jerusalem, many never rebuilt
625 Catholicos Komitas Aghtsetsi rebuilds upper parts of Cathedral of Holy
Etchmiadzin and replaces old chapel of St. Hripsimé with a sanctuary that is still
extant, writes hymns, including him to the Martyred Virgins
5. First Encounter with Islam
640 The first Arab invasion of Armenia, Armenians retain local autonomy as vassals
of the Arabs
717 St. Hovhan Odznetsi (St. John of Odzun) (-728) – Canonbook, Theology, Hymns
850 Vikings invade England
850 Cyril and Methodius create Cyrillic Alphabet, convert Russia
6. Kingdom of Ani
885 Kingdom of Ani – Armenian self-rule established by Ashot I Bagratuni,
consolidated by Ashot II Yerkat ('Iron') Bagratuni
ca. 900 David of Sassoon epic (England – Beowulf, Japan – Tale of Genji) (10th Cent.)
903 Good King Wenceslaus reigns shortly after Bohemian-Czech conversion to
Christianity
912 Arabs invade Spain
915 Aghtamar is built in Lake Van by architect Manuel
947 The Catholicos Anania moves the See from Varag to Argina (near Ani). During
Anania's pontificate, monasteries such as Sanahin and Narek are built
951 St. Grigor Narekatsi (St. Gregory of Narek) (-1003), Book of Prayer (also known
as Book of Lamentations), wrote many hymns, odes used in the Armenian Church
990 Gagik I becomes King. Under Gagik I, the Bagratuni capital of Ani reaches its
zenith and is renowned as "the city of 1,001 churches," with the mother cathedral
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designed by the architect Trdat. Armenian architecture enters its golden age and
its influence is felt as far as western Europe
1018 St. Olaf Converts Norway to Christianity
1054 Great Schism between Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches
1066 Norman Invasion of England
1071 Battle of Manzikert (Manazgerd) – Turks invade Armenia, Fall of Ani (1064)
1097 First Crusade, assisted by the Armenians of Caesarea, Cilicia, and Syria, in their
efforts to capture the Holy Land from Islam. For the next three centuries, the
Armenians take part in the Crusades
7. Cilician Kingdom
1080 Kingdom of Cilicia founded, start of Rubinian Dynasty
1100 St. Nerses Shnorhali (1173), poet, writer, theologian, ecumenical leader, liturgical
reformer, revised Book of Hours, wrote many new hymns
1130 Mkhitar Gosh (1130-1213) compiled an Armenian Law Code, founded the
university at Goshavank, wrote fables
1149 The Holy See was moved to Hromkla, meaning "Roman castle," just outside
Cilicia
1198 Prince Levon II (1187-), becomes King Levon I, was consecrated King by the
Catholicos Grigor VI Apirat on Christmas Day 1199 in Tarsus and received his
crown from the King of Germany through the Pope's emissary
1200 Zakarians liberate parts of Armenia. They or their vassals (Orbelians, Proshians)
built or expanded many monasteries throughout Armenia including Geghard,
Kecharis, Haghartsin, Sanahin, Goshavank
1225 St. Thomas Aquinas, leading figure of Roman Catholic Scholasticism
1226 King Hetum I of Cilicia – Founds dynasty that rules until 1375
1236 Mongols capture Ani
1292 The Holy See moved to Sis, the capital of the Armenian kingdom in Cilicia
1306 Dante Alighieri writes The Divine Comedy
1346 St. Grigor Tatevatsi (St. Gregory of Tatev) (-1409), vardapet, philosopher,
educator and theologian, is born in Vayots Dzor. Along with Hovhannes
Vorotnetsi, his teacher and founder of the university at Tatev, he formulated the
theology of the Armenian Church according medieval Western scholastic
methods as a defense against proselytizing by Roman Catholic missionaries
1375 Egyptian Mamelukes conquer Cilician Kingdom
8. Search for Statehood: Armenia between Turks and Persians
1400 Turkomans invade Armenia; Tamerlane devastates Armenia
1441 The Holy See moved back to the monastery of Etchmiadzin in Vagharshapat by
by decision of a church council, with as many as 700 clergy and laity participating
1453 Turks take Constantinople
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1492 Columbus discovers America
1494 Suleiman the Magnificent Ottoman Sultan, takes Balkans, but defeated at Vienna
1512 First Armenian printed book in Venice by Hakob Meghapart (cf. Gutenberg Bible
(1455))
1517 Martin Luther begins Protestant Movement, Machiavelli writes The Prince
1529 Turkish advance into Europe halted at Vienna
1555 Armenia divided between Ottoman Empire and Persia
1571 Turks defeated at Sea Battle of Lepanto (Don Juan)
1605 Shah Abbas (1587-1629) Persian King resettles Armenians to Isfahan from
Eastern Armenia
1618 First Armenian in America – Martin the Armenian, silk producer
1629 St. Movses of Tatev (-1632) reformed and revived the Church, protecting it from
Muslim repression
1651 At the Council of Jerusalem, Pilipos I Aghbaketsi Catholicos of All Armenians
and Nerses Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, meet and set canons defining
the limits of the jurisdiction of the two Sees
1666 First printed Armenian Bible (Amsterdam) by Voskan vardapet
1701 Israel Ori meets with Russian Tsar Peter the Great to seek Russian assistance in
liberating Armenia from the Persians
1701 A Benedictine order founded by Mkhitar Sebastatsi, who is invited by Roman
Catholic Church to settle on the island of San Lazzaro in Venice; the order's
scholarship and education helps fuel the Armenian 19th century renaissance
1715 Hovhannes Kolot Baghishetsi becomes Patriarch of Constantinople, founds
schools, publishes Armenian classics
1717 Grigor Shirvantsi accepts the position of Patriarch of Jerusalem, called
"shghtayakir" ("chain bearer") because he wears a chain around his neck until the
debts of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem are fully paid
1722 Davit Bek leads successful rebellion against Persians and Ottomans in Siunik
1760 Hovsep Emin, merchant of Calcutta, who solicited the support of England and
Russia for the liberation of Armenia
1790 Catholicos Simeon Yerevantsi founds first printing press at Etchmiadzin,
introduces Der Voghormya into the Badarak, reorganizes the Church Calendar
9. Regaining Autonomy: Russian and Ottoman Empires
1813 Treaty of Gulistan – Russia annexes large parts of Georgia and Karabagh/Artsakh
from Persia, including Elizavetpol (Gandzak, Karabagh)
1828 Treaty of Turkmenchai – Russia annexes Yerevan, Nakhichevan from Persia.
Archbishop Nerses Ashtaraketsi (future catholicos) led the Armenian contingents
fighting under the Russian flag. Catholicos Nerses established Nersisian Jemaran
in Tiflis, where many Armenian cultural figures studied, e.g., Hovhannes
Toumanian, Nikol Aghbalian, Derenik Demirchian
1-5
1829 Treaty of Adrianopolis, whereby Mt. Ararat became part of the Armenian
provinces of the Russian Empire and Bayazit, Kars and Erzerum became part of
the Ottoman Empire
1832 Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire
1836 Polozhenie ("statute") adopted by Tsarist Regime to regulate Armenian Church
1862 Romania gains independence from the Ottoman Empire
1863 Constitution adopted by the Ottoman Court to govern Armenian Community
(Millet) in the Ottoman Empire
1869 Bishop Mkrtich Khrimian elected Patriarch of Constantinople, later Catholicos
(1892-1907); Khrimian Hayrig captured the imagination of the nation through his
writings, patriotism, humility and spiritual leadership
1878 Treaties of San Stefano and Berlin. Kars and Ardahan ceded by Ottoman Empire
to Russian Empire. Serbia gains independence from the Ottoman Empire (Treaty
of San Stefano)
1882 Egypt separated from Ottoman Empire, becomes British Protectorate
1894-6 Sultan Hamid's Massacres of Armenians, 300,000 Armenians die, from
Constantinople to Sasun to Trebizond to Van and Urfa; some resistance in Zeitun,
but largely attacks on defenseless civilian population
1898 The Diocese of the Armenian Church in America is established by Catholicos
Mkrtich Khrimian (its jurisdiction covers No. and So. America)
1903 Catholicos Mkrtich resists Russian attempts to confiscate Armenian Church
property
1908 Bulgaria gains independence from the Ottoman Empire
1908 Adana Massacres – 30,000 Armenian civilians killed by Ottoman Empire
1914 WWI (-1918). Armenian-American volunteers participate in combat as
legionnaires
1915 The first genocide of the 20th century; the Ottoman Empire exterminates the
Armenian population in Turkey; nearly 2000 churches destroyed, over 3,000
clergy perish and 1.5 million Armenians killed. The Church commemorates the
victims of the Genocide annually on April 24.
10. Restored Statehood
1918 Catholicos Gevorg V Sureniants and Bishop Karekin Hovsepiants rally the troops
at the Battle of Sardarapat (May 24), Bash-Aparan, Karakilisa, ringing the bells of
Armenia's churches and the Cathedral of Holy Etchmiadzin
1918 Armenia becomes independent Republic after 600 years of statelessness
1920 British Mandate over Palestine (based on Balfour Declaration 1917)
1920 Armenia is taken over by the Soviets (November 29)
1921 Caucasus Bureau of Communist Party transfer Karabagh to Azerbaijan (June 21)
1938 Khoren I Muradbekian Catholicos found murdered under mysterious
circumstances, a victim of Soviet secret police brutality; Holy See vacant until
1944.
1-6
1939 WWII (-1945) Armenians around the world participate in the war effort to defeat
Nazism, nearly 200,000 Armenian causalties
1943 Archbishop Karekin Hovsepiants, primate of American Diocese (Eastern) (1940-
44) is elected Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia (1943-1952)
1945 Catholicos Gevorg VI Chorekchian elected to see vacant from 1938 to 1944
Karekin I of the Great House of Cilicia present. Seminary at Etchmiadzin is
reopened
1948 State of Israel founded; Old City Jerusalem remains under Jordanian rule
1955 Catholicos Vazken I elected, greatly strengthens Etchmiadzin under the very
difficult conditions of Soviet rule, builds ties with diaspora and in 1962 joins
World Council of Churches
1967 Old City Jerusalem under Israeli rule
1983 Catholicos Khoren I dies at Antelias. Karekin II Sarkisian becomes Catholicos of
the Great House of Cilicia
1985 Soviet Reform movement "Glasnost" (openness) and "Perestroika" (reform) begin
under Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev
1988 Karabagh movement begins February 19; anti-Armenian riots in Sumgait; Spitak
– Leninakan (Gyumri) – Kirovakan (Vanadzor) earthquake, December 7
1990 Abp. Torkom I Manoogian elected Patriarch of Jerusalem
1991 Boris Yeltsin comes to power after August putsch deposes Gorbachev
1991 September 21, Armenia votes for independence, freedom to practice Christianity
reinstated, church properties restored
1991 Levon Ter Petrosyan elected President of Armenia
1992 Battle of Shushi (May 9), Armenians go on to liberate Karabagh
1994 Vazken I, Catholicos of All Armenians, passes away
1995 Karekin II of the Great House of Cilicia is elected Karekin I, Catholicos of All
Armenians at Etchmiadzin
1995 Armenia adopts constitution
1996 Aram I is elected Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia in Antelias, Lebanon
1996 Levon Ter-Petrosyan re-elected President of Armenia
1998 Abp. Mesrob II Mutafian elected Patriarch of Constantinople, Turkey
1998 Robert Kocharian elected President of Armenia
1999 Catholicos Karekin I passes away. Abp. Karekin Nersisian, Primate of the
Araratian Diocese, is elected Karekin II Catholicos of All Armenians
2001 1700th Anniversary of Armenia's conversion to Christianity; Pope John-Paul II,
first Roman Catholic Pope to visit Armenia; His Holiness Bartholomew I, first
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to visit Armenia
2003 Robert Kocharian re-elected President of Armenia
2005 Armenia adopts constitutional reforms, permitting dual citizenship, affirming the
mission of the Armenian Church as Armenia’s national church
2008 Serzh Sargsian elected President of Armenia
1-7
The Armenian Church in America
1889 At the request of the Worcester Armenian community, V. Rev. Fr. Hovsep
Sarajian sent to the U.S. by the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the
first Divine Liturgy in the United States is celebrated on August 4th in Worcester,
MA
1891 The first Armenian Church in the United States, the Holy Savior Church, is
consecrated in Worcester, MA
1894 The first Armenian Church in Fresno is organized
1898 Catholicos Mkrtich I Khrimian (Khrimian Hayrig) establishes Diocese of the
Armenian Church with headquarters in Worcester, MA (July 2); First primate of
the Diocese of America Bp. Hovsep Sarajian
1899 First Armenian Priest ordained in America, Fr. Ghevont Martօօgesian
1900 First Armenian Church in California consecrated – Holy Trinity Church in Fresno
1920 Abp. Tirayr Hovhannesian elected primate, establishes churches in Los Angeles,
Boston, Chicago, Racine, Milkwaukee, New Britain, Philadelphia, Troy and St.
Catherines.
1923 Diocesan headquarters moved from Worcester to Boston
1927 The Western Diocese is established with Bp. Karekin Khachadourian as Primate.
1927 Eastern Diocese headquarters are moved to New York.
1933 Primate Archbishop Ghevont Tourian is assassinated at Holy Cross Armenian
Church in Manhattan.
1940 Abp. Karekin Hovsepiants, Primate of Diocese (1940-1944), later Catholicos of
Great House of Cilicia (1943-1952)
1944 Abp. Tiran Nersoyan elected Primate (1944-1953)
1946 The Armenian Church Youth Organization of America (ACYOA) is founded by
the Primate, His Eminence Archbishop Tiran Nersoyan
1961 St. Nersess Seminary is founded by Archbishop Tiran Nersoyan in Evanston, IL
1966 Archbishop Torkom Manoogian elected Primate, then elected Patriarch of
Jerusalem in 1990
1968 St. Vartan Cathedral is consecrated by Vazken I, Catholicos of All Armenians
1983 The Canadian Diocese is established; its first Primate is His Grace Bishop Vazken
Keshishian
1990 Abp. Khajag Barsamian elected primate of Eastern Diocese
1990 Abp. Hovnan Derderian elected primate of Canada
2000 Abp. Hovnan Derderian elected primate of Western Diocese
2003 Bp. Bagrat Galstanian elected primate of Canada
2003 Ararat Youth and Conference Center purchased by the Eastern Diocese
2008 40th Anniversary of St. Vartan Cathedral
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http://www.arak29.am/we_essential/ResourceGuide/001ArmChurch.pdf


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